Kakadu plum, a native Australian fruit, may just hold the secret to a clearer, more youthful complexion without having to spend hundreds of dollars at the cosmetics counter.
- Kakadu plum is an antioxidant-rich fruit becoming increasingly well-known around the world for its potential health-promoting properties.
- Phytochemicals may protect our bodies, stimulate our defences, and assist in tissue maintenance. For these reasons, it may help prevent common age-related health problems.
Read on to learn about nine benefits of this small but mighty fruit!
What makes Kakadu plum special?
Kakadu plum is an exceptionally rich source of antioxidants, promoting overall health by protecting us from oxidative damage. We are exposed to oxidative damage every day, from strong sunlight, air pollution, cigarette smoke, fried or blackened junk food, environmental toxins, and even our own cells’ energy production. The Kakadu plum’s properties may have evolved to protect it from the harsh Northern Territory climate. After all, plants cannot move themselves to a more suitable environment. They must protect themselves where they are.
Research comparing several native Australian fruits found that Kakadu plum had the most antioxidant compounds and the most potent antioxidant properties. In fact, it was three times stronger than the study’s runner-up, Davidson’s plum.
- Kakadu plum is the richest source of vitamin C in the world, with 12.4mg per gram of fresh fruit.
The acerola fruit contains just over 9mg per gram and is also known as an exceptionally high source of the vitamin. When we compare it to a more well-known fruit, Kakadu plum has 19 times more vitamin C than strawberries!
What’s more, Kakadu plum is high in several other antioxidant compounds sought after for their potential health benefits. These include:
- Gallic acid
- Ellagic acid, generally thought of as pomegranate’s star phytochemical
- Chlorophyll, the green energy producer in plants
- Lutein, a carotenoid
- Quercetin, more well-known for being found in apples
- Vitamin E
- The glycosides luteolin and kaempferol
Essential and trace minerals
- We don’t usually consume large amounts of Kakadu plum powder, but it’s interesting to note that it is rich in certain trace minerals.
Trace minerals are only needed in minute quantities, so we often get enough of them without knowing it. We still don’t know much about what they can do for us or how to pick up deficiencies if necessary. However, it could be important to know what they are and where they’re found. Per 100 grams of dry weight, the fruit has the following essential and trace minerals:
- 538.5mg of calcium
- 421mg of magnesium
- 6.1mg of iron
- 6mg of zinc
- 9.1mg of manganese
- 2.5mg of copper
- 20 micrograms of selenium
- Trace amounts of molybdenum
We know about calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and selenium, but what about the others? In the case of manganese, it has a recommended intake, and Kakadu plum is a relatively rich source. The average woman only needs 1.8mg of manganese a day, and the maximum advisable intake is around 11mg. Manganese helps us to make superoxide dismutase, an antioxidant enzyme that works with the antioxidants in food. Although it’s also unusual to find foods and herbal teas with significant levels of trace minerals, oolong tea is another source of manganese.
Kakadu plum is a rich source of the trace mineral copper, too, with 100 grams of fruit containing 100% of the recommended intake. We don’t hear much about what copper does for us, but its functions include iron metabolism and antioxidant defences. One of the antioxidant enzymes our bodies produce, superoxide dismutase, requires a balance of both zinc and copper to work. Other early research shows that sufficient copper may improve cardiovascular health by reducing LDL cholesterol. This is the “bad” form that can get caught up in arterial plaques.
With this diverse range of nutrients, it seems as though Kakadu plum does the work of several fruits at once! Phytochemicals usually known for being in apples, pomegranates and leafy green vegetables can all be found in this one fruit.
A potential anti-ageing superstar
The skin’s ageing process involves the damage and loss of collagen, a connective tissue protein that contributes to our bodies’ integrity. When we lose collagen, wrinkles and sagging appear, so many anti-ageing treatments involve attempts to replace it.
So, what are Kakadu plum’s skin benefits in the world of anti-ageing?
- A study on ellagic acid, one of the key phytochemicals in Kakadu plum, reveals it may protect collagen against UV radiation.
Mice exposed to UV light had minor skin wrinkling after being given ellagic acid. Applying it directly to the skin prevented wrinkling by relieving inflammation, which damages the cells that produce collagen. This is especially important here in Australia with our strong sunlight. It doesn’t mean you can skip the sunscreen, but Kakadu plum could lend a helping hand in keeping your skin appearing youthful.
Ellagic acid also protected the collagen already in the skin. Inflammation leads to the breakdown of collagen and other connective tissue proteins. In a healthy inflammatory response, this helps the immune cells reach a potential infection or injury. However, we don’t want this when the real cause of inflammation is pollution or sunlight.
In human cells, ellagic acid has shown it can keep skin cells alive and restore their antioxidant abilities. The gene known as Nrf2, which plays many roles in preventing inflammation and protecting our tissues, was more active.
- The vitamin C content of Kakadu plum gives it a unique advantage as an anti-ageing ingredient.
Vitamin C plays essential roles in collagen production, as it instructs our cells to start making it and helps with “knitting” the molecules together. It also provides antioxidant protection in the skin and indirectly turns up collagen production through its antioxidant response.
If you smoke or spend long hours in the sun, then vitamin C-rich foods like the Kakadu plum are all the more important for you. Both smokers’ skin and UV-damaged skin have lower levels of vitamin C in the dermis, which is the deeper, more active layer of skin.
UV light destroys the skin’s connective tissue, including both collagen and elastin. While we still need sunscreen, it only blocks roughly half of the oxidative free radicals generated by UV. Vitamin C doesn’t absorb UV light like sunscreen, but it does neutralise the free radicals. They can work together!
What about using Kakadu plum for dark spots? It turns out that vitamin C may help prevent the uneven pigmentation we see with skin ageing. It reduces the production of melanin, which is what gives skin its colour. If you are of European descent and live in a sunny country like Australia, this could go a long way towards maintaining a youthful look.
Kakadu plum could be one of the best anti-ageing aids for your skin. Its antioxidant properties have evolved over millions of years to protect against harsh environments, and vitamin C is essential for healthy collagen production.
May protect your bones
We don’t think about it, but bones are a type of connective tissue too! They are the only hard connective tissue and provide our bodies with much-needed structural support and protection. Bones are therefore more than just calcium, and much of their non-cellular aspect is collagen proteins.
- Kakadu plum may protect the strength of our bones through its vitamin C content.
Fruits overall are thought to guard our bones due to an acid-buffering effect, but vitamin C supports collagen production. Moreover, vitamin C shows the ability to turn on genes that instruct bone tissue growth and maintenance. We have known for centuries that vitamin C benefits bones. In the past, scurvy was (and still is, in rare cases) characterised by bone loss, die-off of bone tissue and fractures.
Several studies have shown that increasing vitamin C intake is linked to higher bone mineral density. One analysis of research demonstrated a 34% lower risk of hip fracture with higher levels of vitamin C. Hip fractures are a particularly nasty injury. Sadly, many older adults do not survive them because of the stress on their bodies, so prevention is best.
These benefits may apply to both post- and pre-menopausal women. In some, only women taking oestrogen replacement therapy showed any effect. Vitamin C cannot replace all the effects of oestrogen, but it serves as a helpful complement to whatever else you do for your bone health. Calcium, vitamin D and protein intake are still all-important, and so is weight-bearing exercise.
The vitamin C content of the Kakadu plum could make it a helpful ally in osteoporosis prevention. Not only do bones contain collagen, but vitamin C “instructs” bone cells to maintain tissue quality.
Could protect against brain ageing
If osteoporosis and hip fractures didn’t sound bad enough, perhaps the worst thing about ageing is cognitive decline. This is especially the case if it’s severe enough to be classified as dementia. Two underlying causes of cognitive trouble are inflammation and oxidative stress. These contribute to dementia by damaging brain cells to the point that they can no longer survive. Fortunately, some of Kakadu plum’s antioxidants may help protect us.
- Ellagic acid may assist in dementia prevention by relieving inflammation.
In lab models of Alzheimer’s disease, it appears to reduce the damage that glycation causes. Glycation results from unabsorbed blood sugar becoming tangled in the body’s tissues, and the brain is not exempt. Lowering glycation activity can reduce inflammation and prevent the build-up of the amyloid plaques seen in Alzheimer’s disease. These plaques damage and eventually kill off brain cells, so a great deal of Alzheimer’s research looks at how to remove or prevent them.
- Gallic acid could also protect brain cells by soothing inflammation before it gets out of hand.
This includes cells that produce dopamine, an essential neurotransmitter for muscle coordination, motivation and mood regulation. With low dopamine, you end up moody, unable to focus, constipated and often quite clumsy.
Do you love martial arts or extreme sports? Researchers suggest that this protection gallic acid gives could extend to brain injury. While this is no excuse to take unnecessary risks, it may mean that minor, unavoidable bumps are less likely to snowball into something much worse later.
Or perhaps you are a caregiver, work in a stressful career, or live in a city you’d love to move away from but cannot right now. Unfortunately, long-term stress is another cause of cognitive dysfunction. Once again, we can’t always avoid it. Long-term stress often leads to poor memory, anxiety and depression, and oxidative stress may be to blame. Gallic acid’s protection may improve memory and soothe anxiety while reducing inflammatory chemicals that damage the brain. You have enough to worry about already!
Many environmental toxins may contribute to dementia and other neurological issues. They include aluminium, a metal we often use to cook with and sometimes include in medicine such as antacids. Aluminium is toxic to the brain through oxidative damage, including the damage it does to the energy-producing parts of our cells.
- A lab study shows that quercetin may counteract this effect and potentially that of other toxins.
It was able to restore antioxidant activity and the numbers of cellular “organs” which create all of our energy, even in the presence of aluminium. We still advise you to limit your exposure to aluminium, for instance, baking with paper instead of foil.
Certain phytochemicals in Kakadu plum – ellagic acid, gallic acid and quercetin – could protect the brain against age-related damage. They are shown to relieve inflammation, improve stress resistance, and shield us against the harmful effects of toxins.
Can protect cardiovascular health
As we know, ageing is about more than just wrinkles. Cardiovascular disease also increases with age and can result in heart attacks or stroke, with devastating consequences. For best results, we must start protecting our hearts and blood vessels as early as we can.
Research shows that vitamin C can help to protect our cardiovascular health before problems are even noticeable.
- A review of 44 different clinical trials found that vitamin C can significantly improve blood vessel function, preventing them from becoming stiff and damaged.
Vitamin C supplements benefitted people with atherosclerosis, diabetes and heart failure, with higher-risk patients showing the most substantial results. There was no benefit for people with high blood pressure.
Why is vitamin C so effective for some people? Heart disease often starts with inflammation and oxidative stress in the blood vessels. This causes cell damage, smooth muscle overgrowth and plaque development, which is there as a band-aid to patch up the damage. Vitamin C helps by promoting collagen production, just as it does in the skin. This means the blood vessels’ smooth muscle doesn’t need to overgrow, and plaque is unnecessary.
Of course, Kakadu plum and other sources of vitamin C do not replace necessary medical attention. The best thing about them is they are safe ways to prevent health problems years before they are diagnosed.
Kakadu plum’s carotenoids
Lutein, a carotenoid found in Kakadu plum, could protect your cardiovascular health too. Researchers link blood levels of lutein with lower levels of oxidised LDL, the “bad” cholesterol. LDL is only really “bad” when it’s oxidised because then it can contribute to plaque formation. Thanks to this benefit, lower risks of artery plaque are seen with a higher lutein intake. Lutein may also protect the heart cells from damage and even lower your blood pressure.
Cardiovascular disease prevention is about more than cholesterol. As plaques are formed by oxidised cholesterol, improving your antioxidant status can go a long way in protecting your future self.
May protect your eyes
Our eyes are the windows to the world, and we rely on sight more than our other four senses. Unfortunately, as we age, vision declines and can lead to a loss of independence later on. If we are exposed to pollutants or direct sunlight, vision loss can happen even faster. Kakadu plum’s antioxidants, including vitamin C, vitamin E and lutein, may help prevent this.
How antioxidants help
Vitamin C and E may work together to protect against cataracts. Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness worldwide, responsible for about half the cases of blindness and low vision. Even though surgery is readily available in developed countries such as Australia, prevention is preferable. Many health professionals consider cataract to be an age-related disease originating from the accumulation of damage, including oxidative stress.
- In a Spanish study of fruit and vegetable intake, people in the top quarter for their consumption enjoyed either a 56% or 62% lower risk of cataract, depending on the model used.
For vitamin C alone, being in the highest quarter cut cataract risk by 54-60%.
Higher vitamin E intakes alone reduced their cataract risk by 51-57%.
People consuming 140-400mg of vitamin C every day had only half the risk of cataract compared to people who only met the recommended intake.
Essential Vitamin C
Our eyes need vitamin C, with our lenses holding a 30-50 times higher concentration than blood plasma! Their exposure to the outside world justifies their “greed”, as they are in more contact with UV light and pollution. Vitamin C also restores the antioxidant abilities of vitamin E, and both restore glutathione. You may know of glutathione as the master antioxidant, but it cannot work alone. Almost all experimental models of cataract show a loss of glutathione in the lens, so our eyes depend on it.
- Lutein is another antioxidant found in Kakadu plum, and may protect our eyes from age-related diseases.
It guards against oxidative stress in fats, which can be particularly nasty as oil and fat-based substances hang around in our bodies for longer. Even better, lutein has anti-inflammatory effects in multiple pathways that researchers associate with tissue damage.
Our eyes bless us with sight, our dominant sense. The antioxidants in Kakadu plum may reduce your risk of age-related vision problems as you get older, at levels beyond the Australian RDI.
May help control blood sugar
Diabetes is a significant cause of disease and mortality in the world today. Long periods of high blood sugar levels eventually burn out the insulin response, allowing sugar into cells. Sugar builds up in the blood and tissues without insulin’s response, leading to chain reactions of cell damage. Wherever you are in your journey to better blood sugar control, Kakadu plum’s antioxidants could help you out.
- The ellagic acid content of Kakadu plum may mean the fruit has antidiabetic effects.
A laboratory model of type II diabetes showed that it can significantly restore insulin production, where the disease would otherwise cause insulin production to burn out. Higher amounts were able to restore both the size and number of the cells responsible for insulin production.
In type II diabetes, the problem is that prolonged high blood sugar levels make the body resistant to insulin. The pancreas then produces extra insulin to compensate. If high blood sugar isn’t dealt with, it eventually gets worn out and no longer produces insulin. This is why people with severe type II diabetes must inject insulin. Prevention is far better than management.
A clinical study published this year repeated ellagic acid’s success in the lab. When diabetic volunteers took it every day for eight weeks, their blood sugar, insulin, and degree of insulin resistance all fell. Part of why ellagic acid worked is that it acts on a gene known as SIRT1. This gene is famous in anti-ageing and longevity promotion circles for its roles in metabolism, cancer prevention, DNA protection and cell division. It regulates insulin signalling and reduces inflammation and oxidative stress.
Kakadu plum’s manganese content could benefit us in diabetes or metabolic syndrome cases through its role in superoxide dismutase. In one lab study, mice had improved cellular energy production, reduced oxidative stress and better insulin production. Their fasting blood glucose levels dropped by about 24%, and levels tracked over time fell by 41%.
The consequences of high blood sugar
High levels of unabsorbed blood sugar get tangled up in our cells and tissues. They catch onto proteins and form harmful substances known as advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). These AGEs, well, age you! Not only are they part of damaged tissue, but they cause more destruction through cycles of inflammation and oxidative stress.
The ellagic and gallic acid found in Kakadu plum may assist in preventing this damage. When tested on their own, both significantly cut the number of AGEs formed by glucose and fructose (fruit sugar). High doses (most likely too high to be found in natural fruit) almost stopped AGE production. Together, or as part of a whole fruit, ellagic acid and gallic acid would have more substantial effects.
If you have diabetes and get tests for HbA1c, this is a measure of how badly your red blood cells are affected by AGEs. As they are replaced every four months, making positive changes can soon show up on your test results. Try Kakadu plum next – see if your results improve!
The antioxidants in Kakadu plum may help you tame your sugar metabolism by improving insulin sensitivity and relieving inflammation. They could also prevent some of the damage that unabsorbed blood sugar causes, which sometimes takes a long time to clear from the body.
May be antimicrobial
We need to keep the numbers and species types of our gut bacteria in balance for the best digestive health. Acute, severe imbalance can cause food poisoning, while a chronic overgrowth of many potentially harmful species commonly leads to constipation, bloating and gas.
- A lab study on Kakadu plum extracts found that the fruit extract had strong antibacterial effects against a range of microbes known to cause food poisoning in humans. While this is not a substitute for food safety practices and antibiotics if you’re sick enough to need them, the results could mean that Kakadu plum tea helps relieve SIBO.
Other research demonstrates a powerful antibacterial effect from the water extract of Kakadu plum. If you’re drinking it as tea, well, that’s a water extract! This study’s water extract impaired the growth of 11 out of 14 bacterial species tested. The bacteria included some Staphylococcus and Salmonella species and E. coli, which can all cause nasty infections.
Although vitamin C is a remedy for preventing infections, it was unlikely to be responsible for these benefits. In fact, it doesn’t do much alone against E. coli or Staphylococcus. The ellagic and gallic acids already have evidence of being antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal, so they likely did more heavy lifting. However, vitamin C and the antioxidants in green tea may work together in fighting infections.
The antioxidants in Kakadu plum have antimicrobial effects against common bacteria that can cause food poisoning. It’s no substitute for food safety but could help you tame bacterial overgrowth.
Could Kakadu plum fight arthritis?
Arthritis is a painful and disabling group of conditions where the joints become inflamed and damaged. While osteoarthritis (the “wear and tear” condition) is an age-related disease, rheumatoid arthritis can appear at any time. Rheumatoid arthritis results from inflammatory triggers striking genetically vulnerable people and is most likely to occur in younger women.
So what are these potential triggers? One may be chronic bacterial infections, which Kakadu plum could help us to fight. To be specific, Proteus mirabilis infection may have links to rheumatoid arthritis. One lab study testing different Kakadu plum extracts showed that most, including the water extract, were effective against the bacteria.
- Its phytochemicals were able to kill off the bacteria, stop them from spreading, and relieve inflammation.
In rheumatoid arthritis, joint tissue gets caught up in an inflammatory response against infections or toxins, such as P. mirabilis. Then, the immune system gets confused and starts attacking the joints as if they were an infection.
Inflammation and oxidative stress
Increased inflammation and oxidative stress both contribute to and sustain the severity of arthritis. There is an association between higher inflammation and oxidation and lower levels of vitamin C in people with rheumatoid arthritis. Additionally, copper is both an antioxidant and assists in cartilage and collagen formation.
Oxidative stress in fatty tissue may be significant in cases of the disease. In the rheumatoid arthritis group of one study, their inflammatory markers were 10 times higher than average! Their measures of oxidative stress were double that of normal, too. Rheumatoid arthritis is, however, a complex illness, so it’s best to see a holistic health practitioner for personal support.
Rheumatoid arthritis is not entirely genetic, with certain bacterial infections, long-term inflammation and oxidative stress contributing. The phytochemicals and copper content of Kakadu plum may help you find relief.
A potential cancer fighter?
When it comes to cancer, nothing beats prevention. Even if you have taken preventive steps such as quitting smoking or achieving a healthy weight, you may still be worried about your risk of the disease. Or, you could be concerned about environmental toxin exposures that you can’t always avoid.
- Population studies show that antioxidants may have protective effects against cancer. For example, one study on Welsh men found that those in the highest quarter of fruit and vegetable intake had half the cancer risk compared to the lowest quarter.
We see these results because antioxidants prevent cellular damage, including the DNA damage that is thought to be the primary driver of cancer. Even though moderately dangerous oxidative stress leads to cell death, severe levels can cause tissue destruction and other harmful changes.
We cannot completely avoid oxidative stress, even with a healthy diet and minimal exposure to pollution. However, oxidative stress only really becomes an issue when it overpowers our antioxidant capacity. As written above, under what Kakadu plum can do for our eyes, we produce our own antioxidants but need to consume them too, including vitamins C and E.
Despite their ability to help healthy cells live, antioxidants don’t cause cancer. Even though cancer cells produce large amounts of their own antioxidants, a lower level of antioxidants outside of cancer cells increases their survival.
Research directly testing the anticancer properties of Kakadu plum is still a long way off, but lab studies on some of its components suggest a benefit. Chlorophyllin was able to cut the cancer-triggering effects of a potent toxin by over 65% on breast cells, while ellagic acid prevented roughly 45% of its harmful actions. Chlorophyllin is similar to chlorophyll, an unusual component of Kakadu plum. Typically, you’d expect to see chlorophyll in the leafy green parts of a plant.
Similarly, gallic acid may lend a hand in cancer prevention. A lab study involving prostate tumours shows that it could reduce live cell counts inside the tumours and increase differentiation of their cells. When tumour cells are less differentiated, they are more similar to each other; they are more aggressive. Gallic acid also slowed the growth of prostate tumours.
Antioxidant-rich foods, such as Kakadu plum, may reduce your risk of developing cancer. We need more research on the fruit itself before coming to firm conclusions, but some of its antioxidants demonstrate anticancer effects.
Kakadu plum recipe: Berry Smoothie
With most of Australia remaining (relatively) warm all year round, what better way to enjoy Kakadu plum than in a smoothie?
To make a smoothie, simply combine:
- 1 banana, room temperature or semi-frozen depending on your preference
- ½ a cup of coconut water, refrigerated or not
- 1/4 cup of yoghurt, preferably with no added sugar
- ¼ cup of mixed frozen berries
- ½ a teaspoon of Kakadu plum powder
- Optional: collagen powder for an extra anti-ageing boost
- Optional: ice cubes
Just blend it and serve! If you’d like to bring the trendy café experience home, you can also use the semi-frozen smoothie as the base for a smoothie bowl. Toppings you can use include granola, mixed seeds, crushed nuts of your choice, coconut flakes, or extra fruit. For extra protein, you can use skyr, an Icelandic style of yoghurt higher in protein than other varieties.
Kakadu plum skincare recipe: Oatmeal Mask
Some of Kakadu plum’s benefits may include anti-ageing effects on the skin. However, only a tiny percentage of the antioxidants we consume make it to our skin, so why not try out a mask?
One example of a face mask recipe is:
- ½ cup hot water
- 1/3 cup instant oatmeal
- 1-2 tablespoons of plain yoghurt
- 1 tablespoon honey
- 1 teaspoon Kakadu plum powder
All you have to do is stir them together! Even if you can get Kakadu plum serum or other ready-made items, remember that antioxidants degrade over time. Making our own Kakadu plum products means we don’t have to worry about how long it’s been sitting on the shelf.
What does Kakadu plum taste like?
Kakadu plum has quite a tart, bitter taste, which is quite normal for fruits with a high antioxidant content. Riper fruits are sweeter, however. This is why you will likely enjoy them the most as part of smoothies with other, sweeter fruits.
How to cook Kakadu plum?
Vitamin C quickly degrades during many cooking processes, so it’s best to enjoy the fruit raw or as a freeze-dried powder. Research shows that freeze-drying is the better way to preserve Kakadu plum with its vitamin C content compared to oven-drying. It also has a brighter colour, as the oxidation of oven-drying dulls the fruit. You are more likely to find freeze-dried powder, and be able to enjoy the vitamin C boost.
However, you can find Kakadu plum jam, Kakadu plum juice, Kakadu plum soap and other products where the fruit has been heated. It doesn’t eliminate the vitamin C, but for maximum benefits, unheated is best.
Is Kakadu plum good for the hair?
Kakadu plum may be fantastic for skin, but what about hair? The vitamin C content of Kakadu plum may benefit your hair, as it boosts iron absorption. Many people with seemingly unexplained hair loss simply have an iron deficiency.
It’s important to remember that some people do try vitamin C to lighten their hair. Although vitamin C is not a miraculous bleaching method, it often is effective in making hair a shade or two lighter. If you’ve dyed your hair a dark or bright colour, be careful.
Is Kakadu plum safe?
With all that vitamin C, you may wonder if a regular intake of Kakadu plum is safe. For most people, it is. Just under 5% of the world’s population have a genetic condition known as G6PD deficiency, which affects your ability to process vitamin C. Very high doses that require intravenous administration can even damage red blood cells!
Of course, consuming Kakadu plum doesn’t have the same effect as intravenous vitamin C. However, if you have G6PD deficiency, it’s best to use Kakadu plum sparingly, just to be on the safe side.
Additionally, eating large amounts of Kakadu plum is not advisable if you are at risk of kidney stones. Vitamin C can turn into oxalic acid, a significant contributor to kidney stones and affects calcium absorption. To stay on the safe side, we recommend that you stay hydrated to dilute your urine.
Kakadu plum could be one of the best anti-ageing remedies in the plant kingdom. Research suggests that it’s an all-round guardian of our cells and tissues, allowing our bodies to function well. Adding to these benefits, its antimicrobial properties could keep down low-grade infections that contribute to poor health.
The Australian environment may be harsh, but it gives us many beautiful things, including native fruits.
Have you tried Kakadu plum, and if so, how has it benefitted you?
Let us know in the comments below.